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Thank you for your interest in NeuroAiD*.

This section is dedicated to medical professional. Here you can review NeuroAiD’s clinical data, read about its pharmacology, go through publications, and assess the relevance of NeuroAiD in your practice and for your stroke and traumatic brain injured patients.

For more information, do not hesitate to contact us by email at [email protected]


*Note: NeuroAiD™ (MLC601) is the original formula composed by 14 ingredients. NeuroAiD™ II and NurAiD™ II (MLC901) are simplified formulas of NeuroAiD™ (MLC601) composed with the 9 herbal ingredients of the original formula. MLC901 and MLC601 have been shown to be pharmacologically equivalent. In the interest of simplification, the following information will use NeuroAiD as a global name to designate the products except in case of specific mentions.

NeuroAiD is a natural product indicated for post-stroke recovery and post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) recovery.


Following national regulations in each country, NeuroAiD is registered under various schemes, which includes dietary supplement, traditional medicine and herbal medicine. To date, NeuroAiD is available in over 32 countries worldwide and is continuously expanding its development.

With the support and involvement of international key opinion leaders in Neurology and experienced researchers, NeuroAiD has gathered over 45 publications from pre-clinical studies to randomized clinical trials, and aims at addressing a worldwide medical need.

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  1. Young S, et al. Safety profile of MLC601 (NeuroAiD) in acute ischemic stroke patients: A Singaporean substudy of the Chinese medicine NeuroAiD efficacy on stroke recovery study. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2010;30:1-6.
    2. Gan R, et al. Danqi Piantan Jiaonang does not modify haemostasis, haematology, and biochemistry in normal subjects and stroke patients. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2008;25:450-456

Prescription general Information

The recommended dosage is 2 capsules at a time, 3 times daily, for a minimum of 3 months.


Route of administration

Oral route with a glass of water. For people with swallowing difficulties, it is possible to open the capsules and to dilute the content in water. It is also possible to administer the diluted content via a gastric tube.



To date, no drug interactions with NeuroAiD have been reported. For more information on NeuroAiD’s safety profile, click HERE.


Side effects

Published clinical trials have confirmed that NeuroAiD has no blood thinning effect or effect on liver or renal functions. Similarly, NeuroAiD has neither any effect on blood pressure, and doesn’t induce any change in cardiac, hematological, hemostatic and biochemical parameters.1,2

Clinical trials on NeuroAiD reported only rare cases of nausea, minor headaches, increased thirst, dry mouth and vomiting for patients taking NeuroAiD. In these cases, it is advised to halve the dose of NeuroAiD for a few days and progressively increase it.



The use of NeuroAiD in pregnant women, lactating women and children is not documented, and cannot be recommended. To date, no other contraindications are known.


Clinical Data

Amplification of brain self-repair processes translating into persistent functional recovery.

A 3-month course with NeuroAiD:

  • Increases by 50% the odds of achieving functional independence at 6 months.1

  • Enhances persistent functional recovery and independence on top of rehabilitation for up to 2 years.1,2,3

  • Improves motor recovery with benefits observed as early as 1 month of treatment and at each time point up to 3 months.4

The CHIMES-E Study, functional recovery over 2 years.1

  • Pre-planned study on 880 subjects* with Acute Ischaemic Stroke followed up for 2 years.

  • Randomised to 3 months of either NeuroAiD or placebo.


+50% in odds of achieving functional independence at 6 months.

Persistent recovery with benefits observed over 2 years

In subjects with 2 to 4 prognostic factors of poorer outcome** and receiving NeuroAiD2 :

  • More subjects achieved functional independence over time versus placebo.

  • Significant improvements observed as early as 3 months.

  • Less subjects deteriorating over time versus placebo, illustrating the persistence of the recovery

*CHIMES-E published in Cerebrovascular Diseases journal is the pre-planned extended follow-up to 24 months of the CHIMES study5, a 3-month study conducted on 1099 subjects. The CHIMES study was published in Stroke journal in 2013. **Prognostic factors are defined as older age, female sex, baseline NIHSS score ≥ 10 and time to first dose 48h.

Combining NeuroAiD and Rehabilitation doubles the odds of achieving functional independence versus Rehabilitation alone.3  

  • Analysis of 380 subjects having received rehabilitation during 3 months of NeuroAiD (n=200) or placebo (n=180).


+50% in odds of achieving functional independence at 6 months.

Persistent recovery with benefits observed over 2 years

  • Statistically significant odds ratio at all time points from 3 months to 2 years from stroke onset.

  • Persistent recovery with benefits sustained for up to 2 years, as supported by low Numbers Needed to Treat (NNT) range from 5 to 7 over the 24-month follow-up period.

NeuroAiD improves motor recovery.4

  • Randomised double-blind study placebo-controlled study in post-acute stroke subjects with upper and lower limbs deficits, included up to one month following an ischaemic stroke (n=150).

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Significantly better motor recovery observed since month 1 and sustained up to month 3.

  1. Venketasubramanian N, et al. CHInese Medicine NeuroAiD Efficacy on Stroke recovery – Extension Study (CHIMES-E): A multicenter study of long-term efficacy. Cerebrovascular Dis. 2015; 39:309-318.
  2. Venketasubramanian N, et al. Prognostic Factors and Pattern of Long-Term Recovery with MLC601 (NeuroAiD™) in the Chinese Medicine NeuroAiD Efficacy on Stroke Recovery – Extension Study. Cerebrovascular Dis. 2017; 43:36–42.
  3. Suwanwela NC, et al. Effect of Combined Treatment with MLC601 (NeuroAiDTM) and Rehabilitation on Post-Stroke Recovery: The CHIMES and CHIMES-E Studies. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018 doi: 10.1159/000492625.
  4. Harandi AA, et al. Safety and efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian patients after stroke: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Stroke Research and Treatment. 2011; doi:10.4061/2011/721613.
  5. Chen C, et al. Chinese medicine Neuroaid efficacy on stroke recovery – A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Stroke. 2013; 44:2093-2100.
  6. Theadom A, et al. MLC901 (NeuroAid II™) for cognition after traumatic brain injury: A pilot randomised clinical trial. Eur J Neurol. 2018;25(8):1055-e82.
  7. Pakdaman H, et al. MLC901 for moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: pilot, randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Open Acc J Comp & Alt Med. 2020; 2(5).OAJCAM.MS.ID.000148. DOI: 10.32474/OAJCAM.2020.02.000148.



NeuroAiD has a favourable safety profile and is well-tolerated

The safety profile of NeuroAiD is well established in ischemic stroke patients and TBI patients. Most of the studies made on NeuroAiD were comparative to placebo. There is no better comparator to assess the safety profile of a product.

  • No interaction with the standard treatments used in post-stroke management or post-TBI management.1,3
  • No change in cardiac, haematological, haemostatic, biochemical parameters.3,4
  • No serious side effects associated with NeuroAiD during treatment1. Rare, transient and mild side effects (e.g., gastrointestinal symptoms) were reported1. These are usually resolved by halving the dose for a few days.
  • No increase in delayed adverse events after treatment completion and a follow-up of 2 years.2,5

NeuroAiD is safe as an add-on treatment for neurological recovery.

To date, no drug interactions with NeuroAiD have been reported. NeuroAiD should be taken in addition to preventive treatments of cardiovascular risk factors commonly prescribed after a stroke; these typically include antiplatelet, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering drugs, among others such as anti-diabetics. Systematic clinical trials have shown that NeuroAiD does not have any interaction with aspirin. Patients taking NeuroAiD with anticoagulants have reported no impact on their INR (International Normalized Ratio). Nevertheless, it is recommended to keep monitoring INR when NeuroAiD is initiated as it is routinely done for patients taking anticoagulants.

Quality Control

NeuroAiD is manufactured in Singapore under the international standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). The GMP standards are applied to procedures in manufacturing dietary supplements, including approval of raw materials, production and process controls, laboratory testing, and product packaging, labelling, and distribution. These processes are regularly audited by independent health authorities. Every batch of NeuroAiD is analysed thoroughly by third-party independent laboratories to confirm compliance with international standards, ensuring utmost ensuring utmost security of NeuroAiD use.


  1. Chen C, et al. Chinese medicine NeuroAiD efficacy on stroke recovery: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Stroke 2013a;44:2093-2100 2. Venketasubramanian N, et al. CHInese medicine NeuroAiD efficacy on stroke recovery – Extension study (CHIMES-E): A multicenter study of long-term efficacy. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2015;39:309-318. 3. Young S, et al. Safety profile of MLC601 (NeuroAiD) in acute ischemic stroke patients: A Singaporean substudy of the Chinese medicine NeuroAiD efficacy on stroke recovery study. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2010;30:1-6. 4. Gan R, et al. Danqi Piantan Jiaonang does not modify haemostasis, haematology, and biochemistry in normal subjects and stroke patients. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2008;25:450-456. 5. Shahripour RB, et al. A Randomized Trial to Assess the Long-Term Safety of NeuroAiD among Caucasian Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. Chin J Integr Med 2014;20(11):812-817.


NeuroAiD: Pharmacological Data

NeuroAiD has a multi-target mode of action to boost the main components of endogenous neurorepair and exerts a priming effect on neurorepair by simultaneously activating pharmacological pathways


  • Increases survival, neuronal network strengthening and plasticity, and neurogenesis by upregulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)
  • Increases neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis.
  • Promotes a denser axonal and dendritic network.
  • Increases the number of newly generated neurons and glial cells.
  • Optimizes their migration and differentiation into fully funcitonal cells.
  • Reduces the leakage of the Brain Blood Barrier and optimizes its repair. Modulates the expression and activity of the mediators involved in neuroinflammation.
  • Amplifies the development of micro vessels in the damaged area.
  • Reduces the leakage of the Brain Blood Barrier and optimizes its repair.
  • Modulates the expression and activity of the mediators involved in neuroinflammation.

NeuroAiD increases Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) production1

BDNF is a growth factor which regulates neuronal survival and protects neurons from glutamate-induced damages. BDNF also encourages proliferation and differentiation of new neurons.

pharma5 copy 1 In vivo effect of NeuroAiD pre-treatment on BDNF protein levels in cortex sections. (A) Representative epifluorescence microscopy photographs of BDNF immunoexpression in cortical neurons in brain sections. (B) Quantification of BDNF signal intensity in immunostained neurons.

NeuroAiD promotes denser neuronal networks1

Epifluorescence microscopy confirmed the development of an important axonal and dendritic network on cell cultures with NeuroAiD.

On day 14, in neuronal cell cultures treated with NeuroAiD, epifluorescence showed a remarkable increase of DCX, GAP43 and Synaptotagmin expressions, providing evidence that NeuroAiD triggers:

  • Neurogenesis
  • Neurite outgrowth
  • Synaptogenesis

NeuroAiD promotes both the development of new synaptic connections and the modification of existing ones, including an increase in the number and length of dendrites and synapses. A 60% increase in the length of the neurite was shown at Day 14 for NeuroAiD group.

neuropharmacology2 1 Effects of MLC601/MLC901 treatment on in vitro Synaptotagmin 1 expression in cultured cortical neurons. Synaptotagmin 1 expression was analyzed after MLC601/MLC901 treatment (1 mg/ml) at Day 7 and 14 of treatment.

NeuroAiD promotes neuroplasticity and neurogenesis to support stroke recovery1

  • NeuroAiD increases proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells by a significant 3-fold effect (p<0.01) in human stem cells.
  • NeuroAiD increases the number of mature neurons by a significant 2.1-fold effect (p<0.01) in animal studies.
  • Cell cultures treated with NeuroAiD have denser networks of connections with stronger neurons.
pharma7 1 Neurogenic effects of MLC901 on human ESC-derived progenitors. (D) Radiant rosette-like aggregates of nestin-positive neural progenitors spontaneously form in low-density cultures. (E) Quantification of the number of rosettes 2 days after the addition of MLC901 (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus control).  

The combination of its selected 9 herbal ingredients has a priming effect on neurorepair to achieve global functional recovery.

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  • As a priming strategy, NeuroAiD enhances natural neurorepair processes of neurogenesis¹², neuronal network plasticity¹², angiogenesis³ and anti-inflammation⁴.
  • These effects add to the consolidation effects provided by rehabilitation to strengthen the newly formed connections and achieve global functional recovery.

Visit the Publications tab for more information on NeuroAiD's properties and mode of action.

  1. Heurteaux C, et al. Neuroprotective and neuroproliferative activities of NeuroAiD (MLC601, MLC901), a Chinese medicine, in vitro and in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:987-1001.
  2. Quintard H, et al. MLC901, a Traditional Chinese Medicine induces neuroprotective and neuroregenerative benefits after Traumatic Brain Injury in rats. Neuroscience. 2014;277:72-86.
  3. Gandin C, et al. MLC901 Favors Angiogenesis and Associated Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016;42:139–154.
  4. Widmann C, et al. The Traditional Chinese Medicine MLC901 inhibits inflammation processes after focal cerebral ischemia. Scientific Reports. 2018;8:18062.

NeuroAiD plays a role in the hallmarks of

Alzheimer’s Disease mechanisms


Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) results from a neurodegenerative process linked to various causes and involving several pharmacological pathways. With its multimodal mechanism of action, NeuroAiD provides an innovative approach to Alzheimer’s treatment.

NeuroAiD has a multimodal mode of action on the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease mechanisms.


NeuroAiD modulates β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing1

Under pathological conditions such as AD, the amyloidogenic pathway of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing results in large amount of the non-soluble and neurotoxic Aβ fragments, inducing the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. A therapeutic approach would target the APP processing to limit the amyloidogenic pathway.

An in-vitro study conducted on cultures of human neuroblastoma cells showed the effect of NeuroAiD on the APP processing 1.


  • Significantly increases the release of neuroprotective soluble fragment of APP (sAPP-α).
  • Significantly decreases the levels of neurotoxic full-length APP (fl-APP).


NeuroAiD has an anti-tau phosphorylation effect2

The hyperphosphorylation of the tau proteins is another neuropathological hallmark of AD. An in-vivo study showed that NeuroAiD is impacting this process 2.


  • Significantly decreases tau phosphorylation formation.
  • Inhibits glycogen synthase 3β (GSK-3β) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) involved in the hyper-phosphorylation process.

AT8: monoclonal antibody used in western blotting to measure tau phosphorylation

PHF: paired helical filament used in western blotting to measure tau phosphorylation


Effective and well tolerated treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease


NeuroAiD improves cognitive outcomes and slows down disease progression3


The ATHENE study 3

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted on 125 mild-to-moderate probable AD subjects, receiving NeuroAiD (MLC901, 2 capsules, 3 times a day) or placebo as an add-on therapy to standard AD treatment for 6 months, followed by an open-labelled extension study where all subjects received NeuroAiD in addition to standard of care.

  • Early initiation of NeuroAiD combined with standard of care improves the cognitive function of mild-to-moderate AD patients.
  • Improvements on ADAS-Cog are observed as early as month 3 and peaked at month 9.
  • Favourable safety profile and tolerability in combination to standard treatment for Alzheimer.

Comparison of mean change in Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognivtive subscale (ADAS-Cog) score between early starters and delayed starters


AD6 e1674121018565
NeuroAiD is value-added over the long term with a favourable safety profile4,5,6

Open-label pilot study including 124 Alzheimer’s disease patients who failed to benefit from a previous 6-month course of Rivastigmine (lack of efficacy and/or poor tolerability), receiving NeuroAiD for 4 years. Cognitive state of the subjects was assessed by MMSE and ADAS-Cog every 6 months.4*,5*

  • Significant improvement in cognitive function over the first 6 months.
  • Long-term efficacy with a substantial slowdown of disease progression over 4 years observed on ADAS-Cog and MMSE.
  • Good tolerability in AD patients reported up to 4 years.


In a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial conducted on 264 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease, NeuroAiD was compared to 3 approved cholinesterase inhibitors (i.e. Donepezil, Rivastigmine, Galantamine) for 16 months.6*

  • NeuroAiD showed a promising effect with a similar efficacy as the 3 cholinesterase inhibitors, and a superior tolerability without adverse event-related dropouts versus 2% to 5% in acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors’ arms.



  1. Lim YA, Murray LA, Lai MKP and Chen C (2013) NeuroAiD®(MLC601) and Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35(s1):30–37. Doi:10.1159/000346236
  2. Lee WT, Hsian CCL and Lim YA. The effects of MLC901 on tau phosphorylation. NeuroReport. 2017;28(16):1043–1048. Doi:10.1097/WNR.0000000000000884.
  3. Chen C, et al. Alzheimer’s Disease THErapy With NEuroaid (ATHENE): A Randomized Double-Blind Delayed-Start Trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2022;379-386. Doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2021.10.018
  4. Pakdaman H, Gharagozli K, Abbasi M et al. Efficacy and Safety of MLC601 in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease: An Extension 4-Year Follow-Up Study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra. 2018;8(1);174–179. doi://10.1159/000488482
  5. Harandi A, Ashrafi F, Tabatabaei M et al. “Efficacy and Tolerability of MlC601 in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease Who Were Unable to Tolerate or Failed to Benefit from Treatment with Rivastigmine.” Br J Med Med Res. 2013;3:341-350. Doi: 10.1159/000488482
  6. Pakdaman H, Harandi AA, Hamidreza H et al. Effectiveness and safety of MLC601 in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease: a multicenter, randomised controlled trial. Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra. 2015;5(1):96-106. Doi:10.1159/000375295

* Studies conducted with NeuroAiD MLC601 at 1 capsule, 3 times a day.

NeuroAiDTM is a trademark of Moleac. MLC601 (NeuroAiDTM) and MLC901 (NeuroAiDTMII/ NurAiDTMII) are two different proprietary formulae which have been shown to be equivalent in pharmacology and are referred as “NeuroAiD” in this document.

NeuroAiD is available in over 32 countries.


Moleac has developed multiple partnerships with companies sharing the same values and vision to deliver innovative solutions in each market and address medical unmet needs, particularly in post-stroke and post-traumatic brain injury recovery.

Our growing network of partners ensures the availability of NeuroAiD to an even greater number of stroke victims and victims of traumatic brain injuries worldwide but also patients experiencing cognitive decline.

Since 2006, NeuroAiD has expended its presence to over 32 countries and we still aim to make NeuroAiD available to more patients in need worldwide.

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Disclaimers:  This webpage provides scientific data and information exclusively meant for healthcare professionals. NeuroAiD™ II is a trademark of Moleac. MLC601 and MLC901 are 2 different proprietary formulations which have been shown to be equivalent in pharmacology and are referred as NeuroAiD on this webpage.

Find-out if NeuroAiD is right for you.

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